Magnets are schools with specific themes that seek to draw students from across geographic areas. Successful, integration-minded magnet schools strive to create diverse enrollments by factoring diversity into the admissions lottery, selecting themes that appeal to a broad range to families, and enrolling students from across a district or multiple districts. Research shows strong academic outcomes for students who, through an admissions lottery, win the chance to attend a racially and socioeconomically diverse magnet school. Charter School Admissions: Charter schools —schools that are publicly funded and privately managed—can enroll students from geographic areas larger than typical neighborhood school attendance zones.
If designed with the goal of diversity in mind, charter schools can promote integration through use of a weighted lottery that considers socioeconomic status, or through reserved seating for low-income or at-risk students. Successfully integrated charter schools often have robust recruitment strategies to ensure that they reach families of varying backgrounds. Transfer Policies: Some districts seek to increase diversity by giving preference to school transfer requests that would increase the socioeconomic balance of affected schools, or by giving a priority to economically disadvantaged students when reviewing requests.
While integration via transfer policy is limited in scope—that is, unlikely to reach across the entire district or produce consistently balanced schools—it can serve as an important check on inter-district open enrollment policies that tend to benefit higher income children and families. School districts and charter schools can employ several methods to advance equity in their schools through integration.
The most successful integration programs require planning: careful consideration of community demographics, research into the types of programs that would appeal to diverse families, and attention to the roles of transportation and changing residential patterns in the area. But school integration is worth the work.
Middle-class schools are twenty-two times more likely than high-poverty schools to be persistently high-performing, and they provide critical social advantages for students of all backgrounds , including confidence, critical thinking, and creativity. School integration is a highly effective educational innovation. Tags: socioeconomic integration , charter schools , school diversity , socioeconomic diversity , school integration , magnet schools , facts.
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Financial control, fair labour relations, adequate industrial organization, necessary regulation and many other jargons, mainly emerge domestically in the form of an illusion. This article is just a necessary step towards a deeper criticism in search for another order. The new order necessitates building up of a more humanistic theory and desirable policies to correct mistakes, including environmental ones, without penalizing the poor and an equal and fair distribution of wealth in all nations. Now that the disillusionment with the current state of socioeconomic and political affairs seems to be creating considerable distress, the need for a new vision may well get a fair hearing at last.
The hardest task is to change deeply held attitudes. In section II, we will summarise and criticize the dominant literature and then pay attention to a scheme of growth, distribution and accumulation for an open economy in which finance and active government as a whole are essential. The environment is also a leitmotif but needs to be given more emphasis.
Section III, as an illustration, is concerned with the performance of the Brazilian economy in the light of the current scene of potential diving into the quicksand of socioeconomic damage. Section IV emphasizes the importance of fundamental questions not properly answered by the orthodoxy.
Section V has our concluding remarks. We hope some of the issues discussed here will alert us on the necessity of a fundamental revision of the dominant economic theory and instruments to tackle the crisis and paradoxes which sustain the current socioeconomic policy. We need an alternative and a multidisciplinary paradigm to provide an alternative way to solve fundamental problems, not just for Brazil but for all countries. The basic neoclassical model of the capitalist process of growth and distribution is expressed basically in the form of a single good in a closed economy where the government plays an insignificant role.
Such a scheme has a very simple feature and its deficiencies are very serious. It tends to evade fundamental questions on the role of money and investment. As a result, the dominant model fails to clarify the relationships among several issues which should be considered in the process of economic development. The degree of complexity in this matter can be better appreciated if we argue that the basic neoclassical growth model, besides the deficiencies already mentioned, does not take into account money and international trade.
Also, the environment and waste are not included. Let N be the environment land , L the homogeneous labour force and K the single capital stock. They are inputs to the flow of output, Q, leading to consumption, C, and savings, S. According to a very simplistic version of this neoclassical standpoint, the single good is both a production good and a consumer good. S has precedence over investment which is completely invested, expanding the stock of capital.
Uncertainty is completely ignored. They are abstract and deal only with a selected number of relationships. The conclusions follow from the premises that models should contain as few components as possible. Surely, this is a methodological oversimplification; after all, we are dealing with social science. Furthermore, when conclusions follow from oversimplified premises, we are in the midst of a self-reinforcing circular argument, not a scientific truth or a model of the real socioeconomic and political world.
Notice that the scheme above does not involve finance, and theoretically it is mainly concerned with production and expenditure of a single good, corn for instance. This is a simple starting point, an accepted preliminary construction, a barter economy, which will eventually be extended to include the monetary economy. Another interpretation would indicate that money is neutral.
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Some economists would also argue that in a modern credit economy the money supply is endogenous. It accommodates itself to the needs of trade, so that there is a reversal of direction of causality between money and expenditure as well as between savings and investment, but this is not the conventional view. A typical orthodox neoclassical interpretation of the simple scheme assumes the existence of a simple commodity and technological framework relating capital and labour. Land is neglected. Consumers maximise utility, given the budget constraints.
Producers maximise profits, given the flexible relationship among inputs. Assuming perfect competition, the economic system would fully utilize capital and labour since they are supposed to be payable according to their marginal contribution utility. Actually, this approach does not provide a reasonable explanation for most of the troubles of any real economy even when we expand the output from a single commodity to multiple commodities, not to mention the role of corporations and the distorting power they exert over the theory and practice of modern capitalist economy.
The limitations of the above approach are very obvious. Is mainstream economics prepared sufficiently to welcome open-minded discussion and in this vein to reduce the magnitude of its influence both in academia and economic affairs? Theoretically, what role should government play to counter or offset the distorting influence of the rising levels of corporate power, wealth and income inequality on markets? No doubt, the impact of rising levels of inequality on overall socioeconomic welfare and wellbeing merits careful attention.
As pointed out by Teixeira et al , p. Such premise is obviously irrelevant in a world in which egocentrism instead of cooperation is considered as the most important value to curb socioeconomic and environmental disturbances.
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Furthermore, the investment activity that is financed leads to variation in effective demand but we always need to pay attention to significant differences in the social and human value of speculative and fictitious investment versus investment in the real economy. To Marx it was a social, political and legal category. It was considered the power that gives capitalists the authority to make decisions and to extract surplus labor from workers. In the neoclassical theory, resource utilisation assumed the dominance of a market clearing process involving either full employment or a natural rate of unemployment, and in the long term, balanced growth.
The focus of such analysis is the promotion of competition. Neoclassical economists tend to believe that such a mechanism will lead to stable equilibrium and maximal utilisation of disposable resources.
This standpoint tends to ignore the special problems posed by the necessary transformation of demand for future resources into demand for resources now. Socioeconomic Accounting System, Distribution and Sustainability. Neoclassical apparatus is mainly concerned with resource utilisation but the real problem in modern capitalism is with resource creation and the distribution of income and wealth.
In other words, how to expand investment thus, accumulation, growth and employment and how this process is financed. The existence of a satisfactory combination of these components may well be necessary, but not a sufficient condition to attain a high rate of economic growth, sustainability and simultaneous distribution. Thirlwall argues that the effective constraint for long-term steady growth, at a high rate, is the long-run rate of growth of exports, combined with the long-run elasticity of demand for imports in relation to the national income output.
Kaldor , who dealt with conflicts in national economic objective, was one of the outstanding economists and policy makers of his generation to question the traditional foundations of the fiscal and monetary approaches, theories and policies. There are some relevant structural components missing in figure 1. On a number of fundamental issues on this theme, see Nagan He mostly writes about causes of the current challenges and opportunities so as to formulate an integrated and comprehensive strategy towards the promotion of an adequate change needed for well-being of a nation.
For this, a fair and active State is necessary. Dynamic configurations cannot be ignored, since they provide the boundary conditions allowing firms and consumers to function.
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A profound appreciation of the environment is also fundamental from the point of view of a long-term perspective. Such a complex process cannot be conducted without proper State participation. Adequate regulation is still more important under the condition of significant inequality of wealth, income and political power. Financial conditions are responsible for the pace of investment and innovation.
Long-run interest rates have to be higher than short-run rates, warranting a liquidity premium to savers who choose to lend to long-term investors. But, at the same time, long-term interest rates cannot be higher than the return on capital, or they will inhibit investment.
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To tackle properly such difficulty requires a low short-run interest rate of public bonds in the market of liquid assets. This denotes appropriate conditions of finance to stimulate innovation and investment, thus increasing income and production. Even if part of the investment and innovation can be financed out of profits, they can be augmented if sound conditions of credit are improved and regulated to inhibit speculation. In general, persistent budget deficits can cause problems and there are attempts by policy makers to force some fiscal discipline forbidding the government from running excessive budget deficits.
Sometimes, the legislation includes rigid rules setting an upper limit on deficits as a proportion of the tax revenue.