The take-home lesson for small countries is not to get left behind and, if they are behind, they must aim for long-term steady increases. Those countries which have large pharmaceutical industries also have the largest government expenditure in this area. This is probably true for other sectors of research e. However, there was usually a lag of at least a year between increases in government and private expenditure [Hill, ]. Unfortunately the reverse is also true, namely, when government funding for basic research is reduced, there is a corresponding reduction in private expenditure but the delay is shorter.
This suggests that governments should strongly avoid the temptation to indulge in stop-start funding but should take a much longer-term approach to science support.
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For years before this there had been a progressive and serious decline in funding. How was this situation turned around? His plan was cunningly simple. Scientists across the country were mobilised to contact their congressional representatives and put pressure on them to support an increase in funding for research. Gradually the movement grew until there was sufficient bipartisan support to win the day. This was a tough job because, while governments may accept the value of basic research, there seems to be little understanding of why it is important.
In this context, the input by high level scientists to high level political leaders is crucial although few scientists fully appreciate the personal sacrifices their colleagues make in trying to put the message across. Just when U. In the end the projected increased in science funding prevailed, but many were nervous about the failure to maintain the funding momentum.
In a report was prepared for the US Administration in which the levels of funding for fundamental research in Japan was compared to the US expenditure [Advisers, ]. Clearly the Japanese viewed the development of new technology as essential for its economic growth. Today, Japan is currently in the midst of a severe economic crisis. Despite this predicament, the Japanese government has not, as might be expected, reduced its expenditure on research, particularly fundamental research.
In fact it has done the opposite. It has increased their research expenditure. No doubt this decision was based on the argument that if Japanese technology made them the second largest global economy and so it will do it again. Twenty five years ago, it was difficult for the Japanese to induce foreign scientists to work in Japan.
Their exchange programs were mainly there to support Japanese fellowships in the US and elsewhere. Today, this trend has been completely reversed by the steady stream of the best foreign scientists into Japan. Perhaps the most interesting insight into the Japanese scientific psyche is the comment from one Japanese colleague who said that the Japanese Government do not recognised the difference between basic and fundamental research. Japan simply funds science. In the mid-nineteenth century Britain led the world into the industrial revolution.
However, during the Thatcher period funding for research declined sharply despite the fact that she was a science graduate. The Chief Scientist in the UK, Robert May, is an Australian physicist largely credited for turning around the state of funding disaster. By mid he achieved a massive increase in the funding of fundamental research in the UK. The UK situation has, however, been very greatly helped by the large injection of funding from the Wellcome Trust which invested more than the Medical Research Council on a program of research grants and career development fellowships in addition to a joint initiative with the UK Research Councils to boost the provision of equipment and infrastructure in universities.
With the dominant global economies investing in their intellectual stock, it may seem like a waste of precious resources for small or developing countries to engage in basic research. Nevertheless, it can be argued that these countries can and should contribute to the advancement of human knowledge, if only because it stimulates their own intellectual stock.
Patenting of intellectual property provides essential protection for private investment but it is not enough to protect countries from losing the potential value of investments. Small countries need to put in place funding mechanisms to ensure that their technological developments stay in the country. Sweden is a good example. It used to be a net importer of technology but became a net exporter by providing government assistance to develop its native technology. Australia also is a small economy 0. Funding for fundamental research in Australia has declined over the past 5 years.
By its scientific community was acutely aware that it was being squeezed into a critically small and inefficient state. The review Committee suggested that a good way forward was to provide a significant increase in government investment combined with links between public funding, research and the commercialisation of research outcomes by private enterprise.
In this way, growth in the public and private sectors would be additive. Following the privatisation of the New Zealand Government research laboratories, basic research there is now principally conducted in its universities.
Their outcome-driven research funding system Public Good Science Fund now dominates research expenditure and may well lead to a dangerously reduced capacity for innovation. In searching for optimal accountability within universities, the Committee suggested that the best system might be a compromise between quantification of output by numbers of weighted publications, numbers of graduated research students and success with competitive grant funding and qualitative assessment at the university department level. Issues of taxation are complex because they can vary so much from one country to the next.
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This is important because the country where a patent is registered is the one where the taxes on IP royalties must be paid. In Australia, science-based businesses have been critical of government policies and point to the comparatively generous tax credit system available in the USA. There have been similar discussions over the easing of capital gains taxation which many businessmen believe is one of the strongest impediments to private investment in fundamental research.
It is here that scientists should try to influence government attitudes. On the other hand, governments can fairly argue that medium-large science-based businesses particularly the multinationals need to plough a larger share of their profits back into research.
Issues such as national allegiance can be important but are less so for multinationals. In the USA in scientists were ranked second to doctors in terms of a prestigious occupation.
More surprisingly, about the same fraction said they would be prepared to pay extra taxes to finance it. This is truly encouraging and all scientists should see that this change is translated into action. Others companies quickly followed this lead but almost without exception these enterprises relied on close links to scientific information derived primarily from research in universities.
The fact that private enterprise necessarily leaves an economic trail gross sales, net profit, capital gains means that it is relatively easy to find a significant correlation between industrial economic performance and expenditure on research activity [Fagerberg, ]. In the UK, a recent report concluded that basic research is of central importance to the development of pharmaceutical technology, advanced engineering ceramics and parallel computing [Faulkner, ].
Governments measure economic gains using quite different indicators e. A major difference between government and private enterprise funding of basic research is the length of time that each will tolerate before an financial return is produced. Government bureaucrats increasingly appreciate there is a long lead time years is needed between investment research funding in basic research and a commercial outcome. Private enterprise usually takes a much shorter view, namely years from investment to the realisation of a commercial return.
In a study of manufacturing firms noted a correlation between basic research expenditure and productivity [Mansfield, ]. In more recent times, this type of interaction has gathered pace [Mansfield, ]. These patents represent both real and potential commercial innovation. A recent report [Vergano, ] concluded that companies that produced the highest returns on the US stock exchange are those that most frequently cite publicly-funded sciences. This suggests that basic science is crucial to corporate profits and economic advancement. Applications are welcome from those with strong interdisciplinary background in any area of applied mathematics.
The anticipated start date of these positions is July 1, The Advancing Mathematics Faculty Diversity Fellows program is a new initiative that offers an exciting opportunity for highly-qualified emerging scholars preparing to transition into the professoriate, offering an initial year of postdoctoral fellowship research support and training anywhere in the United States in prior to their move to UC Riverside on July 1, as a tenure-track faculty member. Evaluation of applications will begin December 10, and continue until the positions are filled.
For full consideration, applicants should submit their completed applications by the above date. Applications are welcome from those with a strong interdisciplinary background in any area of applied mathematics. Applications are invited for the following position, effective August 16, Final authorization of the position is subject to the availability of funding.
Research Assistant Professorship. This is a non-tenure track position, normally renewable annually to a maximum of three years. This position carries a teaching responsibility of three courses per year, and the expectation that the incumbent play a significant role in the research life of the Department. Applicants must show evidence of outstanding research potential in mathematics, computer science, statistics, mathematics education or related field, and should expect to have a Ph.
Applicants should provide a vita, research and teaching statements, and at least three 3 letters of recommendation. Applications should be submitted through mathjobs. No applications will be accepted by surface mail or e-mail. To ensure full consideration, application materials must be received by November 30, , but applications will be accepted through January 14, The University of Illinois at Chicago is an affirmative action, equal opportunity employer, dedicated to the goal of building a culturally diverse and pluralistic faculty and staff committed to teaching and working in a multicultural environment.
We strongly encourage applications from women, minorities, individuals with disabilities and covered veterans. The University of Illinois may conduct background checks on all job candidates upon acceptance of a contingent offer. Background checks will be performed in compliance with the Fair Credit Reporting Act. It is a full-time appointment with multi-year renewals contingent on successful reviews. This position is to contribute to the Departmental educational mission at the undergraduate and masters level.
Lecturers in Discipline are officers in the University who meet a programmatic need for instruction in specialized fields.
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The selected candidate will be expected to teach 3 courses per semester. Experience with online education is desirable but not required. Candidates will be expected to participate in the full gamut of statistics education including curriculum improvement, modifying and developing courses, and exploring new strategies for the teaching of statistics. The Department of Statistics at Columbia University is an extraordinarily vibrant academic community, which has been growing rapidly. The department currently consists of 30 faculty members, 50 PhD students, and over MA students.
Applicants also should arrange for three letters of recommendation to be uploaded on their behalf. Candidates will be expected to sustain an active research and publication agenda and to teach in the departmental undergraduate and graduate programs. The field of research is open to any area of statistics and probability. The Department has been expanding rapidly and, like the University itself, is an extraordinarily vibrant academic community.