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Oxford University. Kayne, R. Here and there. In Syntax, lexis and lexicon-grammar: papers in honor of Maurice Gross , eds. Laporte, M. Piot and M. Silberztein, — Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Kracht, M. On the semantics of locatives. Linguistics and Philosophy — Krifka, M. The origins of telicity. In Events and grammar , ed. Rothstein, — Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Lakusta, L. Starting at the end: the importance of goals in spatial language. Cognition — Language and memory for motion events: origins of the asymmetry between goal and source paths.

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Cognitive Science , 36 3 — Wagner, K. Conceptual foundations of spatial language: evidence for a goal bias in infants. Language Learning and Development 3 3 — Lundquist, B. Contact, animacy and affectedness in germanic. Rhona Alcorn and C. John Benjamins. Pantcheva, M. Decomposing path. Papafragou, A.

Source-goal asymmetries in motion representation: implications for language production and comprehension. Cognitive Science — Parsons, T. Events in the semantics of English: a study in subatomic semantics. Pustejovsky, J. The syntax of event structure. Radkevich, N.

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Verb meaning and the Lexicon. Cambridge University Press. Regier, T. Attention to endpoints: a cross-linguistic constraint on spatial meaning. Son, M. Microparameters of cross-linguistic variation: directed motion and resultatives. Abner and J. Bishop, — Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press. Svenonius, P. The verb-particle alternation in the Scandinavian languages.

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McNally and C. Kennedy, 16— Oxford University Press. The formal mechanism for implementing a verb's argument structure is codified as theta roles. The verb put is said to "assign" three theta roles. This is coded in a theta grid associated with the lexical entry for the verb. The correspondence between the theta grid and the actual sentence is accomplished by means of a bijective filter on the grammar known as the theta criterion. Early conceptions of theta roles include Fillmore Fillmore called theta roles "cases" and Gruber Theta roles are prominent in government and binding theory and the standard theory of transformational grammar.

The term "theta role" is often used interchangeably with the term thematic relations particularly in mainstream generative grammar—for an exception see Carnie The reason for this is simple: theta roles typically reference thematic relations.

In particular, theta roles are often referred to by the most prominent thematic relation in them. For example, a common theta role is the primary or external argument. Typically, although not always, this theta role maps to a noun phrase which bears an agent thematic relation. As such, the theta role is called the "agent" theta role.

This often leads to confusion between the two notions. The two concepts, however, can be distinguished in a number of ways. One common way of thinking about theta roles is that they are bundles of thematic relations associated with a particular argument position Carnie Theta roles are stored in a verb's theta grid. Grids typically come in two forms. The simplest and easiest to type is written as an ordered list between angle brackets.

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The argument associated with the external argument position which typically ends up being the subject in active sentences is written first and underlined. The theta roles are named by the most prominent thematic relation that they contain. The other notation see for example the textbook examples in Haegeman and Carnie separates the theta roles into boxes, in which each column represents a theta role. The top row represents the names of the thematic relations contained in the theta role. In some work e. This mingles theta-theory with the notion of subcategorization.

The bottom row gives a series of indexes which are associated with subscripted markers in the sentence itself which indicate that the NPs they are attached to have been assigned the theta role in question.

This acts as a filter on the D-structure of the sentence. If an argument fails to have the correct match between the number of arguments typically NPs, PPs, or embedded clauses and the number of theta roles, the sentence will be ungrammatical or unparseable. Chomsky's formulation Chomsky , p. Drawing on observations based in typological cross-linguistic comparisons of languages Fillmore , linguists in the relational grammar RG tradition e.