Water pollution by agriculture. Pimentel, D. Environmental and economic costs of soil erosion and conservation benefits. Science , World agriculture and soil-erosion. Bioscience 37 , Price, T. School of American Research Press Schulze, D.
Soil: The Foundation of Agriculture
Soil Science Socity of America, Schwartz, G. The University of Arizona Press, Sharpley, A. Introduction: Agriculture as a potential source of water pollution. Agriculture, hydrology and water quality , Singer, M.
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Sodium - A functional plant nutrient. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 22 , , doi Tilman, D.
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Global environmental impacts of agricultural expansion: The need for sustainable and efficient practices. Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature , , doi Trigger, B. Cambridge University Press, Troeh, F. Soils and Soil Fertility , 5th ed. Oxford University Press, Wakatsuki, T. Rates of weathering and soil formation. Geoderma 52 , Soil: The Foundation of Agriculture. What Are Soils? Food Safety and Food Security. Introduction to the Sorption of Chemical Constituents in Soils. Pests and Pollinators. Soil erosion controls on biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen.
The Influence of Soils on Human Health. Use and Impact of Bt Maize. Aquaculture: Challenges and Promise.
Soil Carbon Storage. Soil Minerals and Plant Nutrition. Soil Water Dynamics. The Conservation of Cultivated Plants. The Soil Biota. Transgenic Animals in Agriculture. Throughout human history, our relationship with the soil has affected our ability to cultivate crops and influenced the success of civilizations.
This relationship between humans, the earth, and food sources affirms soil as the foundation of agriculture. Aa Aa Aa. Plant Nutrients. Soils for Agriculture. Inorganic Soil Components. As one might expect, contributions from each mineral size fraction help to provide the physical framework for a productive soil. Loamy-textured soils are commonly described as medium textured with functionally-equal contributions of sand, silt, and clay.
These medium-textured soils are often considered ideal for agriculture as they are easily cultivated by farmers and can be highly productive for crop growth. Due to their high surface area, clay particles can exert a large influence on various soil properties e. Clay minerals are colloidal particles, having high surface area, with charged surfaces; permitting binding of many essential plant nutrients.
The most prevalent clay-sized particles in soils fall into the class of layer-type aluminosilicates Sposito that commonly have permanent negative charge with a high CEC. Positively charged clay particles, which bind anions, include those which have pH dependent charge. The most common classes of these minerals in soils are the iron Fe , aluminum Al , and manganese Mn hydr oxides Schulze Soil pH.
Soil Degradation and Crop Production Soil forms from fresh parent material through various chemical and physical weathering processes and SOM is incorporated into soil through decomposition of plant residues and other biomass. Although these natural soil building processes regenerate the soil, the rate of soil formation is very slow. For this reason, soil should be considered a nonrenewable resource to be conserved with care for generations to come. The rate of soil formation is hard to determine and highly variable, based on the five factors of soil formation.
Scientists have calculated that 0. Because of the time required to generate new soil, it is imperative that agricultural practices utilize best management practices BMPs to prevent soil erosion. The soil which is first eroded is typically the organic and nutrient enriched surface layer which is highly beneficial for plant growth. Thus, the primary on-site outcome is reduced crop yield as only the less fertile subsurface layers remain. Soil erosion also pollutes adjacent streams and waterways with sediment, nutrients, and agrochemicals creating serious off-site impacts.
Table 2: Rates of soil erosion and net formation for various land use classes. References and Recommended Reading Alexandratos, N. Diamond, J. Norton, Harlan, J. Crops and Man. Havlin, J.
Soil Fertility and Fertilizers. Jenny, H. Factors of Soil Formation.
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McGraw-Hill, Pyne, S. Fire: A Brief History. University of Washington Press, Smith, B. The Emergence of Agriculture. Scientific American Library, Sparks, D. Environmental Soil Chemistry. Academic Press, Inc.
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Sposito, G. The Chemsitry of Soils , 2nd ed. Wrangham, R. Basic Books, Keywords Keywords for this Article. Flag Inappropriate The Content is: Objectionable. Email your Friend. This content is currently under construction. Explore This Subject. No topic rooms are there. Parikh Soil, Agriculture, and Agricultural Biotechnology. Other Topic Rooms Ecology. Student Voices.
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