The use of insect and fungal pathogens and the exploitation of allelopathic plants is considered by Kaur et al. Biological control has been, and continues to be, considered the best long-term or sustainable solution to the parthenium weed problem in Australia Haseler, ; McFadyen, and because of the vast areas and the socio-economics involved, this approach has also been proposed for India Singh, South Africa was the first country in Africa to implement a biological control program against the species in Rubaba et al.
Four host-specific biocontrol agents have been released sequentially since after evaluation of their suitability, with variable establishment and spread Strathie et al. The use of insects as biocontrol agents had been tried in various countries Kaur et al. Searches for, and evaluation of, coevolved natural enemies have been conducted in the neotropics since Callander and Dhileepan report that most of these agents have become established and have proven effective in central Queensland, but that the weed is now spreading further into southern Queensland where the biocontrol agents are not present.
Several of the agents are therefore now being redistributed into south and southeast Queensland. Some control of P. Shabbir et al. The distribution of this leaf beetle in South Asia was investigated by Dhileepan and Senaratne , when it was present in many states in India, and in the Punjab region of Pakistan.
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Shrestha et al. More recently, Z. Before approval as a biocontrol agent in South Africa in , extensive testing suggested that Z. The rust fungus, Puccinia abrupta var. Screening of another rust species Puccinia melampodii from Mexico was carried out Evans, b ; Seier et al. This fungus was later renamed Puccinia xanthii Schwein.
Romero Seier et al. Retief et al. The authors suggest that this species has more potential for biocontrol in South Africa than Puccinia abrupta , which may have little impact in the low-altitude, high-temperature areas of the country where the weed is spreading. In India, the mycoherbicide potential of plurivorous fungal pathogens belonging to the genera Fusarium, Colletotrichum, Curvularia,Myrothecium and Sclerotium , has and is being evaluated Mishra et al. Kaur and Aggarwal have tested an Alternaria isolate found on the weed, and report that it is worth investigating as a mycoherbicide for control of parthenium.
Metabolites of Alternaria japonica and filtrates of Alternaria macrospora have caused significant damage to Parthenium Kaur et al. The use of antagonistic, competitor plants, such as Cassia spp. In Australia, Bowen et al. The suppressive plants strategy is easy to apply, sustainable over time, profitable under a wide range of environmental conditions and promotes native plant biodiversity. Species reported as effectively outcompeting P. Chemical control. The chemical control of P. A range of herbicides including atrazine, dicamba, 2,4-D, picloram and glyphosate, all applied at high volume, have been employed successfully in Queensland, Australia Haseler, However, chemical control over the enormous areas infested by parthenium weed in Queensland is economically unviable and non-sustainable Parsons and Cuthbertson, , as well as environmentally undesirable Navie et al.
In India, the economics of spraying are even more untenable. Nevertheless, in Australia, spot spraying with atrazine plus a non-ionic surfactant is recommended as a pre-emergence treatment. Post-emergence control has been achieved with 2,4-D, often in combination with picloram Navie et al. Some of the newer herbicides, such as imazapyr, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen, pendimethalin and thiobencarb, have also been reported to be highly effective against parthenium weed Parsons and Cuthbertson, Imazethapyr is particularly effective as a pre-emergence treatment in green gram Tewari et al. There are several disadvantages for the use of chemical herbicides, such as the development of resistance to some herbicides and having detrimental effects over other species.
For example, glyphosate is very toxic and can be damaging to the wild flora Kaur et al. Lorenzi indicates susceptibility to acifluorfen, ametryne, atrazine, bentazon, bifenox, cyanazine, dicamba, diquat, diuron, 2,4-D, fomesafen, glyphosate, ioxynil, linuron, metribuzin, molinate, napropamide, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen, paraquat, prometryne, simazine and tebuthiuron, while there is moderate to total resistance to alachlor, asulam, butachlor, butylate, EPTC, oryzalin, pendimethalin, trifluralin and vernolate.
However, in Brazil, herbicide resistance has developed in relation to the ALS-inhibiting herbicides, i. In these areas, 2,4-D is used as an alternative Gazziero et al. Atrazine is restricted as some countries due to its groundwater contamination potential Kaur et al. IPM In many locations parthenium weed is able to survive individually-applied management measures, and a more effective integrated approach is therefore required in these locations. A holistic IPM approach is propounded in India to achieve sustainable management of parthenium weed Mahadevappa, , and implemented in Australia through improved extension strategies Navie et al.
Several research needs have been identified by various authors regarding P.
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There is limited knowledge of the species impact on the agriculture, biodiversity, and human and animal health in Africa. No mapping for the presence of the species is available for several countries such as Zambia, Swaziland, Botswana and Zimbabwe. Therefore, the actual extent of the spread of P. Studies on how climate change might influence the growth and survival of the species are needed.
Studies on the contribution of genetic diversity in the species invasion mechanism are also needed Bajwa et al. Research and development priorities concerning the species management, health impacts, and its possible benefits are also recommended by Rubaba et al. Sugarcane press mud cake: accelerator of biogas production in various weed biomass. Advances in Plant Sciences, 12 1 ; 14 ref. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, pp.
Parthenium weed in Australia: research underway at the co-operative research centre for tropical pest management. Dharwad, India: University of Agricultural Sciences, Suppressive plants as part of an integrated management program for parthenium weed. Adkins, S. Parthenium weed: biology, ecology and management, [ed. Alhammadi ASA, Preliminary survey of exotic invasive plants in some western and high plateau mountains in Yemen.
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Assiut University Bulletin for Environmental Researches, 13 1 Deadly weed, Parthenium hysterophorus L. Indian Journal of Weed Science, Annapurna C, Singh JS, Variation of Parthenium hysterophorus in response to soil quality: implications for invasiveness. Weed Research Oxford , 43 3 ; many ref.
Anonymous, Incursion of parthenium weed Parthenium hysterophorus in Pupua New Guinea.
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Incursion of parthenium weed in Pupua New Guinea. New South Wales Parthenium Strategy New South Wales Parthenium Strategy. Arny HV, Parthenium hysterophorus. American Journal of Pharmacy, Spread of parthenium weed and its biological control agent in the Punjab, Pakistan. Volume 1: weed management in a changing world, Cairns, Queensland, Australia, September Asad Shabbir, McConnachie, A. In: Parthenium weed: biology, ecology and management, [ed. Asad Shabbir, Rukhsana Bajwa, Distribution of parthenium weed Parthenium hysterophorus L.
Weed Biology and Management, 6 2 Analysis of the spread of tiger pear and parthenium weed in Australia. Australian Weeds, 2 2 An illustrated botanical guide to the weeds of Australia. Melbourne, Australia; Inkata Press, pp. Effect of plant extract of some members of Asteraceae on hatching and mortality of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Bionotes, 3 1 ; 5 ref. Future strategies for effective parthenium management.
Germination ecology of two Australian biotypes of Ragweed parthenium Parthenium hysterophorus relates to their invasiveness. Weed Science, Bajwa, A. What do we really know about alien plant invasion? A review of the invasion mechanism of one of the world's worst weeds. Planta, 1 , Invasive potential of the weed Parthenium hysterophorus - the role of allelopathy. In: Plant protection and plant health in Europe: introduction and spread of invasive species, held at Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany, June [ed.
Weed suppressing ability of parthenin - a sesquiterpene lactone from Parthenium hysterophorus. Belz, R. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 42 1 , Recycling of organic wastes and weeds for clean environment and rural development.
Perspectives in Biotechnology. Proceedings of a national symposium, Warangal, India, February Jodhpur, India: Scientific Publishers, BioNet-Eafrinet, Invasive plants key and fact sheets. Bisikwa J, Parthenium weed distribution and management in Uganda. In: Programme and Abstracts. BOLDS, Kingdoms of Life being barcoded.
BOLD Systems. Management of parthenium weed through competitive displacement with beneficial plants: a field study.
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A report to the Queensland Murray Darling Committee. Brisbane, Australia: The University of Queensland. In: Price A, Ed. Herbicides, Agronomic Crops and Weed Biology.
London, UK: IntechOpen. Extension strategies for weed management require stake holder participation. Chandra S, Parthenium - a new dermatic weed in Bihar. In: Proceedings of the 16th Indian Science Congress, A review of land reform in non-arable lands in India with special reference to the forest lands. Artha Vijnana, 12 1 Studies on influence of parthenium on sorghum growth under irrigated conditions. Farming Systems, 6 The cost of parthenium weed to the Queensland cattle industry.